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Grammatical languages versus lexicologic languages. 
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Old 07-05-2010, 03:56 PM   Post #1
Colin Wilson
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Arrow Grammatical languages versus lexicologic languages.

The famous Swiss French linguist Ferdinand De Saussure, classified languages in:
1/Grammatical languages: languages in which words kept their relation with their language's primal roots.
2/Lexicological languages: languages which for several reasons (substratum, superstratum, creolisation, disglossia, language mixt, pidginisation,lingua franca'isation, language expansion far from the language core homeland...) has lost partly or totally the intrinsic pradigmas that connect the language with its primal roots.

For example, Semitic branch of Afrasanic is a strong grammatical language family, whereas its sister Libyco-Berber language family is rather a lexicological language family, ie most of words in Berber languages lost their connection with the Afrasanic primal roots.

The situation of Berber is , most likely, due (to a great extent) to the big and distant expansion of Berber languages far from the Afrasanic homeland in the near east (similar situations prevail for the Kushomotic and Tchadic branches).

A similar situation could be seen in the Indo-European language family, where the Anatolian branch (the most archaic and old ie branch) is a strong grammatical language, whereas branches such as Greek are more in the lexicological side of the grammatical-lexicological gradient (probably due to the strong pre Greek Pelasgian and Minoan substrates...).

Germanic has a rather odd situation (albeit could be explained by the fact that the early indo-germanischists were nearly all Germans so the basic proto indo-european pradigma could have been interpreted "Germanocentrically" to include the maximum of Germanic roots and Grammar traits as indo-germanic see Bernal Black Athena volume 3) but recent linguistic studies begun to shown that Germanic had a strong non ie substratum.

If we take French, it's a very irregular language with Latin and Greek "adstratums" and a vulgar Latin origin.
Example:
venire=to come.
veneur=comer, is not a word.
venement=coming too.
French for lung is poumon but there is no a French root associated with lung in "pmn"
etc...

Semitic languages are very grammatical, for example in Arabic if you learn the some 70.000 basic roots, you can understand the meaning of all derivative words.
If you have such words as qawman, qiyam, qaima, qawaim, qum, qa'im, qa'ima, qayyama, qawwama=> you will easily know that all those words derivate from the root qwm (to come, rise...)
yad (hand)=>adda(to give, to do)[ayyada, iyyad, mu'ayyid...]
riH (air perhaps connected with Greek aer with metathesis since Semitic H corresponds to Indo-European é)=>rie (lung), ruH (spirit), ra'iHa (odor)...
ra's (head)=> ra'asa (make or appoint as(a)head , make or appoint as(a)chief , make or appoint as(a)president)...[istar'as, tara'assa...]
gabha (forehead)=>gabaha(be faced with)... [gaabaha...]
ibitt(armpit) =>ta'abatta (carry under one's arm)
anf (nose)=> anafa (reject haughtily)[tannafa, anifa...]
lisan (tongue)=> lasana, many meanings could be found in the online dictionnary sakhr [there are also ladagha= to grieve, as a reflexe of *lewgh] (and other derivatives as laasana, talasana...)
عربي => إنجليزي
لَسَّنَ
فــــعــــــــل جَعَلَهُ مُسْتَدِقَّ الطَّرَف
, taper , tip , sharpen , grind , point , whet
لَسَن
مـــصــــــدر فَصَاحَة
, fluency , eloquence
لَسَنَ
فــــعــــــــل جَعَلَهُ مُسْتَدِقَّ الطَّرَف
, taper , tip , point , sharpen , whet , grind
عابَ
, criticize , condemn , carp , censure , find fault with , fault
قَدَحَ
, fault , carp , censure , criticize , condemn
لَدَغَ
, grieve , char
لَسِن
صـــــفـــــــة فَصِيح , بَلِيغ
, well-spoken , voluble , silver-tongued , lucid , pithy , eloquent , fluent , glib
kabid (liver)=>kabada(make assume or bear), kaabada(go through), takabbada....
aaba (to go but most likely is connected with proto Semitic ped=>foot, seen in ancient Arabic pakhd=>upper leg and Berber fudh, English foot...)=>abaa (refute)...
zib (penis)=>zabr (vagina)
nak (fornicate)=> natsh[bedouin dialect]=> nisa' (women)=>nas (folk, people)=>insan (human being) by satemisation/centumisation.
Semitic qa' (proto Semitic ' corresponds to Arabic 3 and Greek omega=>greek geo[earth])=>qa' (ground),qa'a (room),qa'qd (sit down),qa'r(deepen, hollow out)...
saq (leg,connected with Sanskrit skathi, Greek skelos, English thigh)=>saaqa (drive), suq (street,market)
batn (stomach)=>butina=have bellyache or colic
And other verbs and prepositions derived from human organs
fu (mouth)=>fawaha (to speak)...=>fuha
, nozzle , spout
فُتْحَة , فَم
, fissure , crevice , crack , nozzle , louver , spout , vent
=>buz (mouth) bawwaza بَوَّزَ
فــــعــــــــل أَنْتَأَ شَفَتَيْهِ اسْتِيَاءً , عَبَسَ
, pout , sulk
shafa (lip)=>shafaha...
udhn (ear)=>adhna...
qafaa (head,cognate with Latin caput and Greek kefali)=>qafa (follow the trail of , tread in the steps of , follow the tracks or traces of , copy , imitate , pursue , trail , chase , trace , track)
'unq (neck cognate with English neck)=>'anaqa (to embrace)...
'ayn (eye)=>'ayyana...
wadjh (face)=>waadjaha...
latha (gingiva)=>la'thama...
sin (tooth, note that the plural of sin is broken ie asnan similarly to broken plural or tooth=>teeth)=> sanna...
From yad (hand) we have also the preposition lada (at, near , with, into)

Here a short (some 20 pages) free paper (in French) where the Berberist Linguist Chaker explains the Semito-Berber affinities and the grammatical character of Semitic and the rather lexicologic character of Libyco-Berber (the Lybic aka eastern Berber branch is more archaic and conservative than the western aka berber branch=> another proof[alongside with the fact that E*, E1*, E2*, D* hg's origin is in Asia] of the Asian urheimat of proto Afro-Asiatic).

http://www.inalco.fr/crb/pages_html/...mparatisme.pdf

Last edited by Colin Wilson; 07-06-2010 at 03:19 PM.
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Old 07-05-2010, 04:25 PM   Post #2
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What's spanish?
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Old 07-05-2010, 04:31 PM   Post #3
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Quote:
Originally Posted by pier View Post
French for lung is poumon but there is no a French root associated with lung in "pmn"
etc...
Obviously. Romance languages are not Semitic, they don't work on a triconsonantal basis.

In fact, with exceptions due to derivation and the like, all words in the Romance languages are either corrupted Latin or loanwords. Even many derivative forms are from Latin so...
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Old 07-05-2010, 04:44 PM   Post #4
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Incal View Post
What's spanish?
Latin broken by Celts and Basques.
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Old 07-06-2010, 12:17 PM   Post #5
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Much of the verbal roots in Arabic are tri or tetraconsonantal with few ones biconsonantal and very few of them pentaconsonantal and monoconsonontal.
But according to the famous Afrasianist linguist Alexander Militarev, the origin afro-asaitic roots were mono or biconsonantic and the 3 rd radical (consonant) could be analyzed as either:
-triconsonantizer (w,y,',t,3,h)
-suffix (for example according to him "n" is an affix[prefix,suffix or infix] denoting animal names)

So we can postulate that the pie root *lwg (to lick) is a triconsonantized form of the paa root *lq (to lick) with many derivatives formed though suffixations, satemization etc.. but all the result words belong to the "tongue semantic field".(there is also the Arabic root *lθm perhaps from laθa (gingiva) which means to kiss)

In the same time, the ablaut of vowels can give birth to similar meanings, for example: from katif (shoulder) there are derivatives (by changing the internal vowels) with similar meanings
كَتَّفَ
فــــعــــــــل كَتَفَ , كَتَّفَ
, tie the hands (behind the back) , shoulder
كَتِف katif
اســــــــــــم دِعَامَة
, crutch , pile , mainstay , rest , buttress , cantilever
كَتِف , عَظْمُ الكَتِف
, scapula
كَتِف , كَتْف , كِتْف : عاتِق
, shoulder
كَتِف , كَتِفُ قَنْطَرَة
, abutment
كَتْف katuf
اســــــــــــم كَتِف , كِتْف : عاتِق
, epaulet , shoulder
كِتْف kitf
اســــــــــــم كَتِف , كَتْف : عاتِق
, epaulet , shoulder


Please note that Semitic kVr' (fibula) is similar to Latin crus.[V stands for vowel] (it seems do not have pie etymology)
lVsVn is similar to Armenian lezu (Armenian tir=to fly is also similar to Semitic Tr=to fly) pie denghw
uzVn (ear) is similar to pie haus (ear)
fuh (mouth) is similar to Latin bucca (mouth) [here the etymology of English mouth: O.E. muž, from P.Gmc. *munthaz (cf. O.Fris. muth, O.N. munnr, M.Du. mont, Ger. Mund, Goth. munžs "mouth"), with characteristic loss of nasal consonant in O.E. (cf. tooth, goose, etc.), from PIE *mnto-s (cf. L. mentum "chin"). In the sense of "outfall of a river" it is attested from early 12c.; as the opening of anything with capacity (a bottle, cave, etc.) it is recorded from c.1200. The verb is c.1300, "to speak," from the noun.]
There is also buz (mouth) it could be ment=>bent=>bet=>but=>bus=>buz, but I must add that the derivation of "mouth" from constructed hypothetical proto indo-european mnto-s which means chin is not convincing at all, mnto-s seems like an imaginary root that did never exist and connecting "outfall of a river" with "mouth" is more likely a folk etymology but this can be understood for such broad and non grammtical phylum as indo-european.
Bawwaza (to pout, to sulk) could be connected with Persian bus(idan) (to kiss) and French baiser with no indo-european etymology=>pre ie substrate, lislakh root, afro-asiatic root???
npw (to blow) is similar to Latin pulmon (lung) by metathesis and semantic shift [from pie *pleu- "to flow, to float, to swim]
'ay(n) [eye] is similar to English eye [pie okw "to see"]
Berber nz (nose) is similar to English nose [pie nas "nose"]
With semantic shift, perhaps Arabic "butt" (gay) and English butt???
An finally, adda (to give to do) is similar both to pie doH (to give) and English to do (which descends from pie deh=to make).
etc...

Those cognates can be found in comarative linguistic books and also some of them in the website here below:
http://indo-european-migrations.scie...IE_semitic.htm
Quote:
Nostratics is yet another Big Bad Wolf for some of those poor conservative riding hoods out there. Just grab some basic nouns, and check it out for yourself. Generally, Proto-Semitic seems to be more closely related to PIE than the southern Afro-Asiatic groups. Starostin, by the way, reached the same conclusion in one of his articles (unpublished in English?).
The sentence written above is not accurate of course, as the author seems to be unaware of the recent afro-asiatic studies, and there are some mistakes and missing reflexes in the short list he gave.

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Old 07-06-2010, 03:38 PM   Post #6
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Quote:
Originally Posted by pier View Post
fuh (mouth) is similar to Latin bucca (mouth) [here the etymology of English mouth: O.E. muž, from P.Gmc. *munthaz (cf. O.Fris. muth, O.N. munnr, M.Du. mont, Ger. Mund, Goth. munžs "mouth"), with characteristic loss of nasal consonant in O.E. (cf. tooth, goose, etc.), from PIE *mnto-s (cf. L. mentum "chin").
Careful. Bucca meant 'cheek' in Latin, not mouth, until right before the expansion of the Roman Empire. The word for mouth in Latin was os, gen. oris, from which the adjective oral comes.

Quote:
Originally Posted by pier View Post
'ay(n) [eye] is similar to English eye [pie okw "to see"]
Yeah, but comparisons can't be done that way unless proven first with their 'grandparents'. Otherwise I could say that fam in Catalan (hunger) and fam in Arabic (mouth) are related...
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Old 07-06-2010, 03:41 PM   Post #7
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Thank you for the corrections.
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Old 07-08-2010, 12:12 PM   Post #8
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Rigl=leg=>taradjala=walk on legs after being on a cart, horse or camel.
Proto Afro-Asiatic for to swell to swallow is nbl, pie for to swell is bhel; that's why Arabic unbula (small ball) is similar to English ball, the prefix "n" is the reflective/passive suffix in Afro-Asiatic and also shows presence as remnants in some ie languages as in English to break=>broken and it was most likely lost from pie bhel due to the creolisation process??
http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?...earchmode=none
ball
"round object," O.E., from O.N. bollr "ball," from P.Gmc. *balluz (cf. O.H.G. ballo, Ger. Ball), from PIE base *bhel- (2) "to swell" (see bole). The verb meaning "copulate" is first recorded 1940s in jazz slang. To be on the ball is 1912, from sports. Ball-point pen first recorded 1947. Ball of fire when first recorded in 1821 referred to "a glass of brandy;" as "spectacularly successful striver" it is c.1900. Ball and chain as a prisoner's restraint is recorded from 1835; as "one's wife," early 1920s.

Interestingly the Arabic word sunna came from the word sin (tooth).[There are also musinn=old man,sinan=the edge of the spear...]
Thre is a very good Arabic dictionary named "lisan al-arab" (tongue of Arabs) (more than 5 mln words and 70.000 roots near 25.000 pages) written by Andausian scholar Ibn mandhur al khazradji(one of the 2 ansar tribes of Medina), which gives the meanings, etymology, origin of the roots and gives examples from poetry, religion, history, mythology, sociology and the cognates in the other Arab dialects and sometimes other Semitic, Berber and Egyptian languages.
From that book, we can understand why sunna was named according to sin (tooth).
In this website below we can search for the roots in that book, when I searched for "sn" it does not only give the meaning but metaphors, mythology, history, religion, poetry, stories sociology, kuran, hadith, zoology, botanics, cognates in other Arab dialects etc..., and also explains why the sunna was called sunna from sin (tooth):

http://www.alwaraq.net/lisanSearchutf8.htm
Quote:
السِّنُّ: واحدة الأَسنان. ابن سيده: السِّنُّ الضِّرْسُ، أُنْثَى.
ومن الأَبَدِيّاتِ: لا آتِيكَ سِنَّ الحِسْلِ أَي أَبداً، وفي المحكم: أَي ما بقيت سِنُّه، يعني ولد الضَّبِّ، وسِنُّه لا تسقط أَبداً؛ وقول أَبي جَرْوَلٍ الجُشَمِيّ، واسمه هِنْدٌ، رَثَى رجلاً قتل من أَهل العالية فحكم أَولياؤُه في ديته فأَخذوها كلها إِبلاً ثُنْياناً، فقال في وصف إِبل أُخذت في الدية:

فجاءتْ كسِنِّ الظَّبْيِ، لم أَرَ مِثْلَها سَنَاءَ قَتِيلٍ أَو حَـلُـوبَةَ جـائِعِ
مُضاعَفَةً شُمَّ الحَوَارِكِ والـذُّرَى، عِظامَ مَقِيلِ الرأْسِ جُرْدَ المَذارِعِ
كسِنِّ الظَّبْيِ أَي هي ثُنْيانٌ لأَن الثَّنِيَّ هو الذي يُلقي ثَنِيَّتَه، والظَّبْيُ لا تَنْبُتُ له ثَنِيَّة قط فهو ثَنِيٌّ أَبداً. وحكى اللحياني عن المفضل: لا آتيك سِنِي حِسْلٍ. قال: وزعموا أَن الضب يعيش ثلثمائة سنة، وهو أَطول دابة في الأَرض عمراً، والجمع أَسْنانٌ وأَسِنَّةٌ؛ الأَخيرة نادرة، مثل قِنٍّ وأَقْنانٍ وأَقِنَّة. وفي الحديث: إذا سافرتم في خِصْبٍ فأَعْطُوا الرُّكُبَ أَسِنَّتَها، وإذا سافرتم في الجدب فاسْتَنْجُوا. وحكى الأَزهري في التهذيب عن أَبي عبيد أَنه قال: لا أَعرف الأَسِنَّة إلاَّ جَمْع سِنان للرمح، فإِن كان الحديث محفوظاً فكأَنها جمع الأَسْنان، يقال لما تأْكله الإِبل وترعاه من العُشْب سِنٌّ، وجمع أَسْنان أَسِنَّة، يقال سِنّ وأَسْنان من المَرْعَى، ثم أَسِنَّة جمع الجمع. وقال أَبو سعيد: الأَسِنَّة جمع السِّنان لا جمع الأَسنان، قال: والعرب تقول الحَمْضُ يَسُنُّ الإِبلَ على الخُلَّةِ أَي يقوِّيها كما يقوِّي السِّنُّ حدَّ السكين، فالحَمْضُ سِنانٌ لها على رعي الخُلَّة، وذلك أَنها تَصْدُق الأَكلَ بعد الحَمْضِ، وكذلك الرِّكابُ إذا سُنَّت في المَرْتَع عند إِراحة السَّفْرِ ونُزُولهم، وذلك إذا أَصابت ابن السكيت: يقال هو أَشبه شيء به سُنَّة وأُمَّةً، فالسُّنَّة الصُّورة والوجه، والأُمَّةُ القامة. والحديدة التي تحرث بها الأَرض يقال لها: السِّنَّة والسِّكَّة، وجمعها السِّنَنُ والسِّكَكُ. ويقال للفُؤُوس أَيضاً: السِّنَنُ. وسِنُّ القلم: موضع البَرْيِ منه. يقال: أَطِلْ سِنَّ قلمك وسَمِّنْها وحَرِّفْ قَطَّتَك وأَيْمِنْها. وسَنَنْتُ الرجل سَنّاً: عَضَضْتُه بأَسناني، كما تقول ضَرَسْتُه. وسَنَنْتُ الرجلَ أَسُنُّه سَنّاً: كسرت أَسنانه. وسِنُّ المِنْجَل: شُعْبَة تحزيزه. والسِّنُّ من الثُّوم: حبة من رأْسه، على التشبيه. يقال: سِنَّةٌ من ثُوم أَي حبَّة من رأْس الثوم، وسِنَّة من ثومٍ فِصَّةٌ منه، وقد يعبر بالسِّنّ عن العُمُر، قال: والسِّنُّ من العمر أُنْثى، تكون في الناس وغيرهم؛ قال الأَعور الشَّنِّيُّ يصف بعيراً: قَرَّبْتُ مثلَ العَلَم المُبَنَّى، لا فانِيَ السِّنِّ وقد أَسَنّا
أَراد: وقد أَسنَّ بعضَ الإِسنان غير أَن سِنَّه لم تَفْنَ بعدُ، وذلك أَشدّ ما يكون البعير، أَعني إذا اجتمع وتمّ؛ ولهذا قال أَبو جهل بن هشام: ما تِنْكِرُ الحَرْبُ العَوانُ مِنِّي? بازِلُ عامَيْنِ حَديثُ سِـنِّـي
إِنما عَنى شدَّته واحْتناكه، وإنما قال سِنّي لأَنه أَراد أَنه مُحْتَنِك، ولم يذهب في السِّنّ، وجمعها أَسْنان لا غير؛ وفي النهاية لابن الأَثير قال: في حديث علي، عليه السلام: بازل عامين حديثُ سِنِّي.
قال: أَي إِني شاب حَدَثٌ في العُمر كبير قوي في العقل والعلم. وفي حديث عثمان: وجاوزتُ أَسْنانَ أَهل بيتي أَي أَعمارهم. يقال: فلان سِنُّ فلان إذا كان مثله في السِّنِّ. وفي حديث ابن ذِي يَزَنَ: لأُوطِئَنَّ أَسْنانَ العرب كَعْبَه؛ يريد ذوي أَسنانهم وهم الأَكابر والأَشراف. وأَسَنَّ الرجلُ: كَبِرَ، وفي المحكم: كَبِرَتْ سِنُّه يُسِنُّ إِسْناناً، فهو مُسِنٌّ. وهذا أَسَنُّ من هذا أَي أَكبر سِنّاً منه، عربية صحيحة. قال ثعلب: حدّثني موسى بن عيسى بن أَبي جَهْمَة الليثي وأَدركته أَسَنَّ أَهل البلد. وبعير مُسِنّ، والجمع مَسانُّ ثقيلة. ويقال: أَسَنَّ إذا نبتت سِنُّه التي يصير بها مُسِنَّاً من الدواب. وفي حديث معاذ قال: بعثني رسول الله، صلى الله عليه وسلم، إلى اليمن فأَمرني أَن آخذ من كل ثلاثين من البقر تَبِيعاً، ومن كل أَربعين مُسِنَّةً، والبقرَةُ والشاةُ يقع عليهما اسم المُسِنّ إذا أَثْنَتا، فإِذا سقطت ثَنِيَّتُهما بعد طلوعها فقد أَسَنَّتْ، وليس معنى إِسْنانها كِبَرَها كالرجل، ولكن معناه طُلوع ثَنِيَّتها، وتُثْني البقرةُ في السنة الثالثة، وكذلك المِعْزَى تُثْني في الثالثة، ثم تكون رَباعِيَة في الرابعة ثم سِدْساً في الخا بحِقَّتِها رُبِطَتْ في اللَّـجِـي نِ، حتى السَّدِيسُ لها قد أَسَنّ.
أَي نَبت وصار سِنّاً؛ قال: هذا كله قول القتيبي، قال: وقد وَهِمَ في الرواية والتفسير لأَنه روى الحديث لم تُسْنَنْ، بفتح النون الأُولى، وإنما حفظه عن مُحَدِّث لم يَضْبِطْه، وأَهل الثَّبْتِ والضَّبْطِ رووه لم تُسْنِنْ، بكسر النون، قال: وهو الصواب في العربية، والمعنى لم تُسِنُّ، فأَظهر التضعيف لسكون النون الأَخيرة، كما يقال لم يُجْلِلْ، وإِنما أَراد ابن عمر أَنه لا يُضَحَّى بأُضحية لم تُثْنِ أَي لم تصر ثَنِيَّة، وإذا أَثْنَتْ فقد أَسَنَّتْ، وعلى هذا قول الفقهاء. وأَدنى الأَسْنان: الإِثْناءُ، وهو أَن تنبت ثَنِيَّتاها، وأَقصاها في الإِبل: البُزُول، وفي البقر والغنم السُّلُوغ، قال: والدليل على صحة ما ذكرنا ما روي عن جَبَلة ابن سُحَيْم قال: سأَل رجل ابن عمر فقال: أَأُضَحِّي بالجَدَعِ? فقال: ضَحّ بالثَّنِيِّ فصاعداً، فهذا يفسر لك أَن معنى قوله يُتَّقَى من الضحايا التي لم تُسْنِنْ، أَراد به الإِثْناءَ. قال: وأَما خطأ القُتَيْبيّ من الجهة الأُخرى فقوله سُنِّنَتِ البدنة إذا نبتت أَسْنانُها وسَنَّها الله غيرُ صحيح، ولا يقوله ذو المعرفة بكلام العرب، وقوله: لم يُلْبَنْ ولم يُسْمَنْ أَي لم يُعْطَ لَبَناً وسْناً خطأٌ أَيضا بِحِقَّتِها رُبِطَت في اللَّـجِـي نِ، حتى السَّدِيسُ لها قد أَسَنّ
يقول: قيمَ عليها منذ كانتِ حِقَّةً إلى أَن أَسْدَسَتْ في إِطعامها وإِكرامها؛ وقال القُلاخُ: بِحِقِّه رُبِّطَ في خَبْطِ اللُّـجُـنْ يُقْفَى به، حتى السَّدِيسُ قد أَسَنّ
وأَسَنَّها اللهُ أَي أَنْبَتها. وفي حديث عمر، رضي الله تعالى عنه: أَنه خطب فذكر الربا فقال: إن فيه أَبواباً لا تَخْفى على أَحدٍ منها السَّلَمُ في السِّنِّ، يعني الرقيقَ والدوابَّ وغيرهما من الحيوان، أَراد ذوات السِّنّ. وسِنُّ الجارحة، مؤَنثة ثم استعيرت للعُمُر استدلالاً بها على طوله وقصره، وبقيت على التأْنيث. وسِنُّ الرجل وسَنينُه وسَنينَتُه: لِدَتُه، يقال: هو سِنُّه وتِنُّه وحِتْنُه إذا كان قِرْنَه في السِّنّ.
وسَنَّ الشيءَ يَسُنُّه سَنّاً، فهو مَسْنون وسَنين وسَنَّته: أَحَدَّه وصَقَله. ابن الأَعرابي: السَّنّ مصدر سَنَّ الحديدَ سَنّاً. وسَنَّ للقوم سُنَّةً وسَنَناً. وسَنَّ عليه الدِّرْعَ يَسُنُّها سَنّاً إذا صَبَّها.
وسَنَّ الإِبلَ يسُنُّها سَنّاً إذا أَحْسَن رِعْيَتها حتى كأَنه صقلها.
والسَّنَنُ: اسْتِنان الإِبل والخيل. ويقال: تَنَحَّ عن سَننِ الخيل.
وسَنَّنَ المَنْطِقَ: حَسَّنه فكأَنه صقَله وزينه؛ قال العجاج: دَعْ ذا، وبَهّجْ حَسَباً مُبَهَّجـا فَخْماً، وسَنِّنْ مَنْطِقاً مُزَوَّجاً
والمِسَنُّ والسِّنانُ: الحجَر الذي يُسَنُّ به أَو يُسنُّ عليه، وفي الصحاح: حجَر يُحدَّد به؛ قال امرؤُ القيس: يُباري شَباةَ الرُّمْحِ خَدٌّ مُذَلَّـقٌ، كَصَفْحِ السِّنانِ الصُّلَّبيِّ النَّحِيضِ
قال: ومثله للراعي: وبيضٍ كسَتْهـنَّ الأَسِـنَّةُ هَـفْـوَةً، يُداوى بها الصادُ الذي في النّواظِرِ.
وأَراد بالصادِ الصَّيَدَ، وأَصله في الإِبل داء يُصيبها في رؤوسها وأَعينها؛ ومثله للبيد: يَطْرُدُ الزُّجَّ، يُباري ظِلَّهُ بأَسِيلٍ، كالسِّنانِ المُنْتَحَلْ
والزُّجُّ: جمع أَزَجَّ، وأَراد النعامَ، والأَزَجُّ: البعيد الخَطو، يقال: ظليم أَزجُّ ونعامة زَجَّاء. والسِّنانُ: سِنانُ الرمح، وجمعه أَسِنَّة. ابن سيده: سِنانُ الرمح حديدته لصَقالتها ومَلاستها. وسَنَّنَه: رَكَّبَ فيه السِّنان. وأَسَنْت المرحَ: جعلت له سِناناً، وهو رُمح مُسَنٌّ.
وسَنَنْتُ السِّنانَ أَسُنُّه سَنّاً، فهو مَسنون إذا أَحدَدْته على المِسنِّ، بغير أَلف. وسَنَنتُ فلاناً بالرمح إذا طعنته به. وسَنَّه يَسُنُّه سَنّاً: طعنه بالسِّنان.
وسَنَّنَ إليه الرمح تسْنيناً: وَجَّهه إليه. وسَننْت السكين: أَحددته. وسَنَّ أَضراسَه سَنّاً: سَوَّكها كأَنه صَقَلها. واسْتَنَّ: استاك. والسَّنُونُ: ما استَكْتَ به. والسَّنين: ما يَسقُط من الحجر إذا حككته. والسَّنُونُ: ما تَسْتنُّ به من دواء مؤَلف لتقوية الأَسنان وتَطريتها. وفي حديث السواك: أَنه كان يَستنُّ بعودٍ من أَراك؛ الإستِنان: استعمالُ السواك، وهو افتِعال من الإسْنان، أَي يُمِرُّه عليها. ومنه حديث الجمعة: وأَن يَدَّهِن ويَسْتنَّ. وفي حديث عائشة، رضي الله عنها، في وفاة سيدنا رسول الله، صلى الله عليه وسلم: فأَخذتُ الجَريدة فسَننْتُه بها أَي سَوَّكته بها.
ابن السكيت: سَنَّ الرجلُ إبله إذا أَحسن رِعْيتها والقيامَ عليها حتى كأَنه صقلها؛ قال النابغة: نُبِّئْتُ حِصْناً وحَيّاً من بنـي أَسَـدٍ قاموا فقالوا: حِمانا غيرُ مقْروبِ
ضَلَّتْ حُلومُهُمُ عنهم، وغَـرَّهُـمُ سَنُّ المُعَيديِّ في رَعْيٍ وتَعْزيبِ
يقول: يا معشر مَعَدٍّ لا يغُرَّنكم عزُّكم وأَنَّ أَصغر رجل منكم يرعى إِبله كيف شاء، فإِن الحرث ابن حِصْن الغَسّاني قد عَتب عليكم وعلى حِصْن بن حُذيفة فلا تأْمنوا سَطوَته. وقال المؤرّج: سَنُّوا المالَ إذا أَرسلوه في الرِّعْي. ابن سيده: سَنَّ الإِبلَ يَسُنُّها سَنّاً إذا رعاها فأَسْمنها.
والسُّنّة: الوجه لصَقالتِه ومَلاسته، وقيل: هو حُرُّ الوجه، وقيل: دائرته.
وقيل: الصُّورة، وقيل: الجبهة والجبينان، وكله من الصَّقالة والأَسالة.
ووجه مَسْنون: مَخروطٌ أَسيلٌ كأَنه قد سُنَّ عنه اللحم، وفي الصحاح: رجل مَسْنون: المصقول، من سَننْتُه بالمِسَنِّ سَنّاً إذا أَمررته على المِسنِّ. ورجل مسنون الوجه: حَسَنُه سهْله؛ عن اللحياني. وسُنَّة الوجه: دوائره.
وسُنَّةُ الوجه: صُورته؛ قال ذو الرمة: تُريك سُنَّةَ وَجْهٍ غيرَ مُقْـرِفةٍ مَلساءَ، ليس بها خالٌ ولا نَدَبُ
ومثله للأَعشى: كَريماً شَمائِلُه من بنـي مُعاويةَ الأَكْرَمِينَ السُّنَنْ
وأَنشد ثعلب: بَيْضاءُ في المِرْآةِ، سُنَّـتُـهـا في البيت تحتَ مَواضعِ اللّمْسِ
وفي الحديث: أَنه حَضَّ على الصدقة فقام رجل قبيح السُّنَّة؛ السُّنَّةُ: الصورة وما أَقبل عليك من الوجه، وقيل: سُنّة الخدّ صفحته.
والمَسْنونُ: المُصوَّر. وقد سَنَنْتُه أَسُنُّه سَنّاً إذا صوّرته. والمَسْنون: المُمَلَّس. وحكي أَن يَزيد بن معاوية قال لأَبيه: أَلا ترى إلى عبد الرحمن بن حسان يُشَبّبُ بابنتك? فقال معاوية: ما قال? فقال: قال: هي زَهْراءُ، مثلُ لُؤلؤةِ الـغَـوْ وَاص، مِيزَتْ من جوهرٍ مكنونِ
فقال معاوية: صدق؛ فقال يزيد: إنه يقول: وإذا ما نَسَبْتَها لم تَـجِـدْهـا في سَناءٍ، من المَكارم، دُونِ
قال: وصدق؛ قال: فأَين قوله: ثم خاصَرْتُها إلى القُبَّةِ الخَضْ راءِ، تَمْشي في مَرْمَرٍ مَسنونِ
قال معاوية: كذب؛ قال ابن بري: وتُرْوَى هذه الأَبيات لأَبي دهبل، وهي في شعره يقولها في رَمْلةَ بنت معاوية؛ وأَول القصيد: طالَ لَيْلي، وبِتُّ كالمَحْزونِ، ومَلِلْتُ الثَّواءَ بالماطِـرُونِ
منها: عن يَساري، إذا دخَلتُ من البـا ب، وإن كنتُ خارجاً عن يَميني
فلذاكَ اغْترَبْتُ في الشَّأْم، حتـى ظَنَّ أَهلي مُرَجَّماتِ الظُّنـونِ
منها: تَجْعَلُ المِسْكَ واليَلَنْجُوج والنَّدْ دَ صلاةً لها على الكانُـونِ
منها: قُبَّةٌ منْ مَراجِلٍ ضَرَّبَتْها، عندَ حدِّ الشِّتاءِ في قَيْطُونِ
القَيْطُون: المُخْدَع، وهو بيت في بيت.
ثم فارَقْتُها عـلـى خَـيْرِ مـا كـا نَ قَـرينٌ مُـفـارِقـاً لـقَــرِينِ
فبَكَتْ، خَشْيَةَ التَّـفَـرُّق لـلـبَـي نِ، بُـكـــاءَ الـــحَـــزينِ
إِثرَ الحَزِينِ فاسْأَلي عن تَذَكُّري واطِّبا ئيَ، لا تَأْبَيْ إنْ هُـمُ عَـذَلُـونـي
اطِّبائي: دُعائي، ويروى: واكْتِئابي. وسُنَّةُ الله: أَحكامه وأَمره ونهيه؛ هذه عن اللحياني. وسَنَّها الله للناس: بَيَّنها. وسَنَّ الله سُنَّة أَي بَيَّن طريقاً قويماً. قال الله تعالى: سُنَّةَ الله في الذين خَلَوْا من قبلُ؛ نَصَبَ سنة الله على إرادة الفعل أَي سَنَّ الله ذلك في الذين نافقوا الأَنبياءَ وأَرْجَفُوا بهم أَن يُقْتَلُوا أَين ثُقِفُوا أَي وُجِدُوا. والسُّنَّة: السيرة، حسنة كانت أَو قبيحة؛ قال خالد بن عُتْبة الهذلي: فلا تَجْزَعَنْ من سِيرةٍ أَنتَ سِرْتَها، فأَوَّلُ راضٍ سُنَّةً من يَسِـيرُهـا
وفي التنزيل العزيز: وما مَنَعَ الناسَ أَن يُؤمنوا إذا جاءهم الهُدى ويستغفروا رَبَّهم إلاَّ أَن تأْتيهم سُنَّةُ الأَوَّلين؛ قال الزجاج: سُنَّةُ الأَوَّلين أَنهم عاينوا العذاب فطلب المشركون أَن قالوا: اللهم إن كان هذا هو الحَقَّ من عندك فأَمْطِرْ علينا حجارةً من السماء.
وسَنَنْتُها سَنّاً واسْتَنَنْتُها: سِرْتُها، وسَنَنْتُ لكم سُنَّةً فاتبعوها. وفي الحديث: من سَنَّ سُنَّةً حَسَنةً فله أَجْرُها وأَجْرُ من عَمِلَ بها، ومن سَنَّ سُنَّةً سيّئَةً يريد من عملها ليُقْتَدَى به فيها، وكل من ابتدأَ أَمراً عمل به قوم بعده قيل: هو الذي سَنَّه؛ قال نُصَيْبٌ: كأَني سَنَنتُ الحُـبَّ، أَوَّلَ عـاشِـقٍ من الناسِ، إِذ أَحْبَبْتُ من بَيْنِهم وَحْدِي
وقد تكرر في الحديث ذكر السُّنَّة وما تصرف منها، والأَصل فيه الطريقة والسِّيرَة، وإذا أُطْلِقَت في الشرع فإِنما يراد بها ما أَمَرَ به النبيُّ، صلى الله عليه وسلم، ونَهى عنه ونَدَب إليه قولاً وفعلاً مما لم يَنْطق به الكتابُ العزيز، ولهذا يقال في أَدلة الشرع: الكتابُ والسُّنَّةُ أَي القرآن والحديث. وفي الحديث: إِنما أُنَسَّى لأِسُنَّ أَي إنما أُدْفَعُ إلى النِّسْيانُ لأَسُوقَ الناسَ بالهداية إلى الطريق المستقيم، وأُبَيِّنَ لهم ما يحتاجون أَن يفعلوا إذا عَرَضَ لهم النسيانُ، قال: ويجوز أَن يكون من سَنَنْتُ الإِبلَ إذا أَحْسنت رِعْيتَها والقيام عليها. وفي الحديث: أَنه نزل المُحَصَّبَ ولم يَسُنَّهُ أَي لم يجعله سُنَّة يعمل بها، قال: وقد يَفْعل الشيء لسبب خاص فلا يعمّ غيره، وقد يَفْعل لمعنى فيزول ذلك المعنى ويبقى الفعل على حاله مُتَّبَعاً كقَصْرِ الصلاة في السفر للخوف، ثم استمرّ القصر مع عدم الخوف؛ ومنه حديث ابن عباس: رَمَلَ رسولُ الله، صلى الله عليه وسلم، وليس بسُنَّة أَي أَنه لم يَسُنَّ فِعْلَه لكافة الأُمّة ولكن لسبب خاص، وهو أَن يُرِيَ المشركين قوّة أَصحابه، وهذا مذهب ابن عباس، وغيره يرى أَن الرَّمَلَ في طواف وفي حديث مُحَلِّمِ ابن جَثَّامة: اسْنُنِ اليومَ وغَيِّرْ غداً أَي اعْمَلْ بسُنَّتك التي سَنَنْتها في القِصاصِ، ثم بعد ذلك إذا شئت أَن تغير فغير أَي تغير ما سَننْتَ، وقيل: تُغَيِّر من أَخذ الغِيَر وهي الدية.
وفي الحديث: إن أَكبر الكبائر أَن تُقاتل أَهل صَفْقَتِك وتُبَدِّلَ سُنَّتَك؛ أَراد بتبديل السُّنة أَن يرجع أَعرابيّاً بعد هجرته. وفي حديث المجوس: سُنُّوا بهم سُنَّة أَهل الكتاب أَي خذوهم على طريقتهم وأَجْرُوهم في قبول الجزية مُجْراهم. وفي الحديث: لا يُنْقَضُ عَهْدُهم عن سُنَّةِ ماحِلٍ أَي لا ينقض بسَعْيِ ساع بالنميمة والإِفساد، كما يقال لا أُفْسِدُ ما بيني وبينك بمذاهب الأَشرار وطُرُقهم في الفساد. والسُّنَّة: الطريقة، والسَّنن أَيضاً. وفي الحديث: أَلا رجلٌ يَرُدُّ عَنَّا من سَنَنِ هؤلاء.
التهذيب: السُّنَّةُ الطريقة المحمودة المستقيمة، ولذلك قيل: فلان من أَهل السُّنَّة؛ معناه من أَهل الطريقة المستقيمة المحمودة، وهي مأْخوذة من السَّنَنِ وهو الطريق. ويقال للخَطّ الأَسود على مَتْنِ الحمار: سُنَّة.
والسُّنَّة: الطبيعة؛ وبه فسر بعضهم قول الأَعشى: كَرِيمٌ شَمَائِلُه من بَـنِـي مُعاويةَ الأَكْرَمينَ السُّنَنْ.
وامْضِ على سَنَنِك أَي وَجْهك وقَصْدك. وللطريق سَنَنٌ أَيضاً، وسَنَنُ الطريق وسُنَنُه وسِنَنُه وسُنُنُه: نَهْجُه. يقال: خَدَعَك سَنَنُ الطريق وسُنَّتُه. والسُّنَّة أَيضاً: سُنَّة الوجه. وقال اللحياني: تَرَك فلانٌ لك سَنَنَ الطريق وسُنَنَه وسِنَنَه أَي جِهَتَه؛ قال ابن سيده: ولا أَعرف سِنَناً عن غير اللحياني. شمر: السُّنَّة في الأَصل سُنَّة الطريق، وهو طريق سَنَّه أَوائل الناس فصارَ مَسْلَكاً لمن بعدهم. وسَنَّ فلانٌ طريقاً من الخير يَسُنُّه إذا ابتدأَ أَمراً من البِرِّ لم يعرفه قومُه فاسْتَسَنُّوا به وسَلَكُوه، وهو سَنِين. ويقال: سَنَّ الطريقَ سَنّاً وسَنَناً، فالسَّنُّ المصدر، والسَّنَنُ الاسم بمعنى المَسْنون. ويقال: تَنَحَّ عن سَنَنِ الطريق وسُنَنه وسِنَنِه، ثلاث لغات. قال أَبو عبيد: سَنَنُ الطريق وسُنُنُه مَحَجَّتُه. وتَنَحَّ عن سَنَنِ الجبل أَي عن وجهه.
الجوهري: السَّنَنُ الطريقة. يقال: استقام فلان على سَنَنٍ واحد. ويقال: امْضِ على سَنَنِك وسُنَنِك أَي على وجهك. والمُسَنْسِنُ: الطريق المسلوك، وفي التهذيب: طريق يُسْلَكُ. وتَسَنَّنَ الرجلُ في عَدْوِه واسْتَنَّ: مضى على وجهه؛ وقول جرير: ظَلِلْنا بمُسْتَنِّ الحَرُورِ، كأَنـنـا لَدى فَرَسٍ مُسْتَقْبِلِ الريحِ صائِم
عنى بمُسْتَنِّها موضعَ جَرْي السَّرابِ، وقيل: موضع اشتداد حرها كأَنها تَسْتَنُّ فيه عَدْواً، وقد يجوز أَن يكون مَخْرَجَ الريح؛ قال ابن سيده: وهو عندي أَحسن إلاَّ أَن الأَول قول المتقدِّمين، والاسم منه السَّنَنُ. أَبو زيد: اسْتَنَّت الدابةُ على وجه الأَرض. واسْتَنَّ دَمُ الطعنة إذا جاءت دُفْعةٌ منها؛ قال أَبو كبير الهذلي: مُسْتَنَّة سَنَنَ الفُـلُـوِّ مُـرِشَّة، تَنْفي الترابَ بقاحِزٍ مُعْرَوْرِفِ
وَطَعَنه طَعْنةً فجاء منها سَنَنٌ يَدْفَعُ كلَّ شيءٍ إذا خرج الدمُ بحَمْوَتِه؛ وقول الأَعشى: وقد نَطْعُنُ الفَرْجَ، يومَ اللِّقا ءِ، بالرُّمْحِ نحْبِسُ أُولى السَّنَنْ قال شمر: يريدُ أُولى القومِ الذين يُسرعون إلى القتال، والسَّنَنُ القصد. ابن شميل: سَنَنُ الرجل قَصْدُهُ وهِمَّتهُ. واسْتَنَّ السَّرابُ: اضطرب. وسَنَّ الإِبلَ سَنّاً: ساقها سَوْقاً سريعاً، وقيل: السَّنُّ السير الشديد. والسَّنَنُ: الذي يُلِحُّ في عَدْوِه وإِقْباله وإِدْباره. وجاء سَنَنٌ من الخيل أَي شَوْطٌ. وجاءت الرياحُ سَنائِنَ إذا جاءت على وجه واحد وطريقة واحدة لا تختلف. ويقال: جاء من الخيل والإِبل سَنَنٌ ما يُرَدُّ وجْهُه. ويقال: اسْنُنْ قُرونَ فرسك أَي بُدَّهُ حتى يَسِيلَ عَرَقهُ فيَضْمُرَ، وقد سُنَّ له قَرْنٌ وقُرون وهي الدُّفَعُ من العَرَق؛ وقال زهير ابن أَبي سُلْمى: نُعَوِّدُها الطِّـرادَ فـكـلَّ يوْمٍ تُسَنُّ، على سَنابِكِها، القُرونُ.
والسَّنينة: الريح؛ قال مالك بن خالد الخُنَعِيُّ في السَّنَائن الرِّياحِ: واحدتها سَنِينةٌ، والرِّجَاعُ جمع الرَّجْعِ، وهو ماءُ السماء في الغَدير. وفي النوادر: ريح نَسْناسة وسَنْسانَةٌ باردة، وقد نَسْنَسَتْ وسَنْسَنَتْ إذا هَبَّتْ هُبُوباً بارداً. ويقول: نَسْناسٌ من دُخان وسَنْسانٌ، يريد دخان نار. وبَنى القوم بيوتهم على سَنَنٍ واحد أَي على مثال واحد. وسَنَّ الطينَ: طَيَّنَ به فَخَّاراً أَو اتخذه منه. والمَسْنون: المُصَوَّرُ. والمَسْنون: المُنْتِن. وقوله تعالى: من حَمَأٍ مَسْنُونٍ؛ قال أَبو عمرو: أَي متغير منتن؛ وقال أَبو الهيثم: سُنَّ الماءُ فهو مَسْنُون أَي تغير؛ وقال الزجاج: مَسْنون مَصْبوب على سُنَّةِ الطريق؛ قال الأَخفش: وإنما يتغير إذا أَقام بغير ماء جار، قال: ويدلك على صحة قوله أَن مسنون اسم مفعول جارٍ على سُنَّ وليس بمعروف، وقال بعضهم: مسنون طَوَّلَهُ، جعله طويلاً مستوياً. يقال: رجل مَسنون الوجه أَي حسن الوجه طويله؛ وقال ابن عباس: هو الرَّطْبُ، ويقال المُنْتِنُ. وقال أَبو عبيدة: المَسنونُ المَصبوب. ويقال: المسنون المَصْبوب على صورة، وقال: الوجه المَسنون سمِّي مَسنوناً لأَنه كالمخروط.
الفراء: سمي المِسَنُّ مِسَنّاً لأَن الحديد يُسَنُّ عليه أَي يُحَكُّ عليه.
ويقال للذي يسيل عند الحك: سَنِينٌ، قال: ولا يكون ذلك السائل إلا مُنْتِناً، وقال في قوله: من حمَأٍ مَسنون؛ يقال المحكوك، ويقال: هو المتغير كأَنه أُخذ من سَنَنْتُ الحجر على الحجَر، والذي يخرج بينهما يقال له السَّنِينُ، واللهأعلم بما أَراد. وقوله في حديث بَرْوَعَ بنتِ واشِقٍ: وكان زوجها سُنَّ في بئر أَي تغير وأَنْتنَ، من قوله تعالى: من حمَأٍ مسنون؛ أَي متغير، وقيل: أَراد بسُنَّ أَسِنَ بوزن سَمِعَ، وهو أَن يَدُورَ رأْسه من ريح كريهة شمها ويغشى عليه. وسَنَّتِ العينُ الدمعَ تَسُنُّه سَنّاً: صبته، واسْتَنَّتْ هي: انصب دمعها. وسَنَّ عليه الماءَ: صَبَّه، وقيل: أَرسله إرسالاً ليناً، وسَنَّ عليه الدرعَ يَسُنُّها سَنّاً كذلك إذا صبها عليه، ولا يقال شَنَّ. ويقال: شَنَّ عليهم الغارةَ إذا فرّقها. وقد شَنَّ الماءَ على شرابه أَي فرَّقه عليه. وسَنَّ الماءَ على وجهه أَي صبَّه عليه صبّاً سَهْلاً. الجوهري: سَنَنْتُ الماءَ على وجهي أَي أَرسلته إِرسالاً من غير تفريق، فإِذا فرّقته بالصب قلت بالشين المعجمة. وفي حديث بول الأَعرابي في المسجد: فدعا بدلوٍ من ماء فسَنَّه عليه أَي صبه.
والسَّنُّ. الصبُّ في سُهولة، ويروى بالشين المعجمة، وسيأْتي ذكره؛ ومنه حديث الخمر: سُنَّها في البَطْحاء. وفي حديث ابن عمر: كان يَسُنُّ الماءَ على وجهه ولا يَشُنُّه أَي كان يصبه ولا يفرّقه عليه. وسَنَنْتُ الترابَ: صببته على وجه الأَرض صبّاً سهلاً حتى صار كالمُسَنّاة. وفي حديث عمرو بن العاص عند موته: فسُنُّوا عليَّ الترابَ سَنّاً أَي ضعوه وضعاً سهلاً. وسُنَّت الأَرض فهي مَسنونة وسَنِينٌ إذا أُكل نباتها؛ قال الطِّرِمّاحُ: بمُنْخَرَقٍ تَحِنُّ الـريحُ فـيه، حَنِينَ الجُلْبِ في البلدِ السَّنِينِ.
يعني المَحْلَ. وأَسْنان المنْجَل: أُشَرُهُ. والسَّنُونُ والسَّنِينة: رِمالٌ مرتفعة تستطيل على وجه الأَرض، وقيل: هي كهيئة الحِبال من الرمل.
التهذيب: والسَّنائن رمال مرتفعة تستطيل على وجه الأَرض، واحدتها سَنِينة؛ قال الطرماح: وأَرْطاةِ حِقْفٍ بين كِسْرَيْ سَنائن وروى المؤرِّج: السِّنانُ الذِّبّانُ؛ وأَنشد: أَيَأْكُلُ تَأْزِيزاً ويَحْسُو خَزِيرَةً، وما بَيْنَ عَيْنَيهِ وَنِيمُ سِنـانِ?
قال: تأْزِيزاً ما رَمَتْه القدْر إذا فارت. وسَانَّ البعيرُ الناقةَ يُسانُّها مُسانَّةً وسِناناً: عارضها للتَّنَوُّخ، وذلك أَن يَطْرُدَها حتى تبرك، وفي الصحاح: إذا طَرَدَها حتى يُنَوِّخَها ليَسْفِدَها؛ قال ابن مقبل يصف ناقته: وتُصْبِحُ عن غِبِّ السُّرَى، وكأَنها فَنِيقٌ ثَناها عن سِنانٍ فـأَرْقَـلا
يقول: سانَّ ناقتَه ثم انتهى إلى العَدْوِ الشديد فأَرْقَلَ، وهو أَن يرتفع عن الذَّمِيلِ، ويروى هذا البيت أَيضاً لضابئ بن الحرث البُرْجُمِيِّ؛ وقال الأَسدِيُّ يصف فحلاً: للبَكَراتِ العِيطِ منها ضاهِدا، طَوْعَ السِّنانِ ذارِعاً وعاضِدَا.
ذارعاً: يقال ذَرَعَ له إذا وَضَعَ يده تحت عنقِه ثم خَنَقه، والعاضِدُ: الذي يأْخذ بالعَضُدِ طَوْعَ السِّنانِ؛ يقول: يُطاوعه السِّنانُ كيف شاء. ويقال: سَنَّ الفَحْلُ الناقة يَسُنُّها إذا كبَّها على وجهها؛ قال: فاندَفَعَتْ تأْفِرُ واسْتَقْفاها، فسَنَّها للوَجْهِ أَو دَرْباها
أَي دفعها. قال ابن بري: المُسانَّةُ أَن يَبْتَسِرَ الفحلُ الناقةَ قَهْراً؛ قال مالك بن الرَّيْبِ: وأَنت إذا ما كنتَ فاعِلَ هـذه سِنَاناً، فما يُلْقَى لِحَيْنك مَصْرَعُ
أَي فاعلَ هذه قهراً وابْتِساراً؛ وقال آخر: كالفَحْل أَرْقَلَ بعد طُولِ سِنَانِ
ويقال: سَانَّ الفحلُ الناقَةَ يُسانُّها إذا كَدَمَها. وتَسانَّتِ الفُحُولِ إذا تَكادَمت.
وسَنَنْتُ الناقةَ: سَيَّرتُها سيراً شديداً. ووقع فلان في سِنِّ رأْسِهِ أَي في عَدَدِ شعره من الخير والشر، وقيل: فيما شاء واحْتَكَم؛ قال أَبو زيد: وقد يُفَسَّرُ سنُّ رأْسه عَدَدُ شعره من الخير. وقال أَبو الهيثم: وقع فلان في سِنِّ رأْسِه وفي سِيِّ رأْسه وسَواءِ رأْسِه بمعنى واحد، وروى أَبو عبيد هذا الحرف في الأَمثال: في سِنِّ رأْسه، ورواه في المؤلَّف: في سِيِّ رأْسه؛ قال الأَزهري: والصواب بالياء أَي فيما سَاوَى رَأْسَه من الخِصْبِ. والسِّنُّ: الثور الوحشي؛ قال الراجز: حَنَّتْ حَنِيناً، كثُؤَاجِ السّنِّ، في قَصَبٍ أَجْوَفَ مُرْثَعِنِّ
الليث: السَّنَّةُ اسم الدُّبَّة أَو الفَهْدَةِ. قال أَبو عبيد: ومن أَمثالهم في الصادِقِ في حديثه وخبره: صَدَقَني سِنَّ بَكْرِه؛ ويقوله الإِنسانُ على نفسه وإن كان ضارّاً له؛ قال الأَصمعي: أَصله أَن رجلاً ساوَمَ رجلاً ببَكْرٍ أَراد شراءَه فسأَل البائعَ عن سِنِّه فأَخبره بالحق، فقال المشتري: صَدَقَني سِنَّ بكره، فذهب مثلاً، وهذا المثل يروى عن علي بن أَبي طالب، كرم الله وجهه، أَنه تكلم به في الكوفة. ومن أَمثالهم: اسْتَنَّتِ الفِصالُ حتى القَرْعَى؛ يضرب مثلاً للرجل يُدْخِلُ نفسه في قوم ليس منهم، والقَرْعى من الفِصَال: التي أَصابها قَرَعٌ، وهو بَثْرٌ، فإِذا اسْتَنَّتِ الفصال الصِّحَاحُ مَرَحاً نَزَتِ القَرْعَى نَزْوَها تَشَبَّهُ بها وقد أَضعفها القَرَعُ عن النَّزَوانِ. واسْتَنَّ الفَرَسُ: قَمَصَ. واسْتَنَّ الفرسُ في المِضْمارِ إذا جرى فين نَشاطه على سَنَنه في جهة واحدة. والاسْتنانُ: النَّشَاطُ؛ ومنه المثل المذكور: اسْتَنَّتِ الفِصَالُ حتى القَرْعى، وقيل: اسْتَنَّتِ الفِصال أَي سَمِنَتْ وصَارَتْ جُلُودها كالمَسَانِّ، قال: والأَول أَصح. وفي حديث الخيل: اسْتَنَّت شَرَفاً أَو شَرَفَيْنِ؛ اسْتَنَّ الفَرَسُ يَسْتَنُّ كيف تَرَى الغزْوة أَبْقَتْ مِنِّي سَناسِناً، كحَلَقِ الـمِـجَـنِّ
أَبو عمرو وغيره: السَّنَاسِنُ رؤوس المَحالِ وحُروفُ فقَارِ الظهر، واحدها سِنْسِنٌ؛ قال رؤبة: يَنْقَعْنَ بالعَذْبِ مُشاشَ السِّنْسِنِ
قال الأَزهري: ولحمُ سَناسِنِ البعير من أَطيب اللُّحْمَانِ لأَنها تكون بين شَطَّي السَّنَام، ولحمُها يكون أَشْمَطَ طَيّباً، وقيل: هي من الفرس جَوانِحُه الشاخِصَةُ شبه الضلوع ثم تنقطع دون الضلوع. وسُنْسُنُ: اسم أَعجمي يسمي به السَّوَادِيُّونَ. والسُّنَّةُ: ضرب من تمر المدينة معروفة.
Here google translation
Quote:
Age: One of the teeth. Son of a woman: Age tooth, female.
It is eternal: No Attic age Al_husl which never, in the arbitrator: what year left, I mean born lizard, age never fails; and the view of Abu Jarwal Jashmi, named India, lamented the man who killed the people of the high ruling guardians in Dith they took them all camels Tnjana, He said in the description of camels took parental:

Xin came the deer, I have not seen like Sana dead or Hlobp hungry
Double sniff Alhawwark and peaks, the bones of the head Napped inventory Almmara
Fawn is the enactment of any Thunayan because the bending is the one who cast Tnith, Fawn and do not grow a pagan is never bend at all. And told their favorite اللحياني: No Attic has obtained a Sunni. Said: "They claimed that the lizard to live three hundred years, the longest-lived animal on earth, combining teeth and teeth; recent rare, such as serfs and the serfs and Oguenp. In the hadeeth: If you travel in a fertile Render therefore Osntha behind, and if you travel in arid Fastnjua. And told Azhari in civility from Abu Obeid said: "I do not know putrid only collect Senan shaft, the talk was reserved just seemed like the collection of teeth, is said to eat camel, sponsored by the grass of age, the collection of teeth teeth, said enactment and the teeth of the meadow, and then teeth collection combination. Abu Sa'eed said: putrid collection of teeth do not collect the teeth, he said: "The Arabs say DNA enacted camels on the close friendship which strengthens and strengthens the Age knife-edge, An acid Sinan her grazing close friendship, because it was ratified after eating acid, as well as passengers, if enacted in the park when you rest Travel and landing, so if I hit the skeet: It is said is more like something the nation by the year, the year the image and the face, the nation's stature. And Hodeidah, which tilled the land is said to have: a year and Rail, and collecting the Sunnah and rails. It is said of the axes also: Sunan. Enactment of the pen: the subject land from him. Said: peered age of pen and Smonha letter and your cat and Oimnha. The men are not enacted a: Eddth Bosinani, says Dharsth. And enacted a man's teeth are not: I broke his teeth. Enactment of sickle: Division Thuzeizh. The Age of garlic: a grain of his head, on the analogy. Said: a year of garlic tablet from the top of the garlic, and a year of garlic, alfalfa, Having reflects the age of age, he said: "Age-old female, are in the people and others; said eyed Alhani describes a camel: rounded like a science building, not Fannie age has Oceana
Wanted: The teeth of some teeth, however, age did not Tefnakht yet, and that of the most is the camel, I mean, if were met; and so he told Abu Jahl bin Hisham: What war Alawan deny me? Basel two years of talk
What was meant by intensity and Ahtnake, but he said he wanted Sunni Mannk it did not go in age, but not collected teeth; In the end I'm the air said: "In an interview with Ali, peace be upon him: Basel two years of talk.
He said: I am no old man happened in a large strong in mind and science. In an interview with Osman: The teeth that exceeded any of my family lives. Said: So and so and age if someone like him in age. In the hadeeth of Ibn Dhi Yazan: To Ootin teeth Arab heel; they want with their teeth and supervision of senior companions. And teeth the man: old, and the arbitrator: I grew up years enacted teeth, he is elderly. The teeth of this any older than him, Arab incorrect. Fox said: "We talked Musa bin Isa bin Abi GHARMA Leithi teeth and understood the people of the country. The old beast, combining Messan heavy. It is said: If teeth grew year in which the elderly become of animals. In an interview with Maaz said: "sent me the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, to Yemen and he told me to take every thirty cows helper, and every forty elderly, and the cow and the sheep falls upon them the name of the elderly if the Twelve, if fell Tnithma after sunrise The Ascent, does not mean Needle teeth as men, but its meaning invented more than dawn, and commends the cow in the third year, and also commends the comforter in the third, then be a quad in the fourth and then in Sdsa Alkha Bhaktha linked in Allchi n, so it may Sudais teeth.
Which grew and became older; said: "This is all to say Alqtibi, he said: They are in the novel and the explanation for that narrated the hadeeth, no indentation, open Noon first, but save for an updated not control him, and the people of bibliography and seizure narrated the hadeeth no indentation, broken Noon, he said: this is the correct in Arabic, the meaning was not made, fully demonstrating the multiple reward for Noon the last sleep, as they say no drapes, but I wanted that neither sacrificed animal is paraded did not discourage idolatry which did not insist, if it has commended the Ascent, and the words of the scholars. And lower teeth: discourage, that grows Tnitaha, and a maximum in the camel: Albzul, in cattle and sheep Alslog, said: "The evidence for what we have narrated from Ibn protoplasm Suhaim said:" A man asked Ibn Umar and said: Oodhi Paljda? He said: Dh choke on, it explains the meaning of the words that you guard of the victims that have not indentation, wanted to discourage him. He said: The error Alqtibi the other words of the enacted a Alibdnp if it grew teeth and enactment of God is true, do not say a knowledge of words, the Arabs, saying: I did not Ibann not fattening which did not give to us and we are not also wrong Bhaktha linked in Allchi n, even Sudais it has teeth
Says: Rate it since she was a true that Osdst in the fed and honoring; said Alqlak: link in the right knock Committee Iagafy, even Sudais has teeth
The Onoha of God reproached her. In an interview with Umar, may Allaah be pleased with him: he mentioned that he proposed marriage masturbation said: "the doors are obvious to one of them is peace in the Age, I mean the slave and the animals and other animals, wanted to animate age. Age of prey, feminine, and then borrowed by the inference of age on the length and his palace, and remained on the feminine. Age of men and Sneineh and Sninth: to bore, said: This is the age and Tinh and Htne if paired in age.
We are not enacted by the age thing, it is the elderly and years and enacted: one polished. I'm Bedouin: Age not a source of iron age. Age of people a year and enacted. It enacted by the enactment of shield if not cast.
Enactment of camels enacted if we are not even the best parishioners like refined.
The Sunnah: the enactment of camels and horses. And say: Step down! Sunan horses.
And ways of logic: classed as if refined and decorated; Agag said: Let a, and get excited, happens delightful luxury, and is the way a dual logic
And the elderly and the teeth: the stone that enacted or enacted by it, and in Saheeh: Stone defines it; said someone Dimensions: Lipari Chaabap spear Mzlq cheek, teeth Kcefh `d Alnhid
He said: like for the sponsor: The eggs Ksthn putrid gag, which heals by Exports in Alnoazer.
And wanted to Balsad fishing, camel origin in disease attenuation in the head and eyes; and, like him, however: the involvement of expelled, Lipari shadow Basil, Kalsinan Impostor
And into: the collection Ozj, and wanted to ostriches, Alozj: Remote step, said: Zlim Ozj Zjae and ostrich. And spear: spearhead, and collected teeth. Son of a woman: to spearhead Hdidth Sqaltha and Mlasthe. And his Sunan: behind the teeth. Ascent and Fun: Make him Sinana, a shaft of elderly.
The teeth are not enacted a spear, it is the elderly if Ohddth the elderly, without a thousand. And enacted a spear him, so if you stabbed him. And age are not enacted: stabbed done with weapons.
And is the way to Spear Tsnina: face it. And enacted a knife: Ohddth. Age of teeth are not: Sokha like refined. And enacted: uses the siwaak. And over the years: What Acetkt tags. And years: What if the stone falls from the Gkth. And years: What enact its author medicine to strengthen the teeth and moisten. In an interview with siwaak: Westin that he was a stick of Arak; Alistnan: the use of tooth brushing, which is the front line of the teeth, any Imrh them. And from an interview Friday: painting and Westin. In an interview with Aisha, may Allah be pleased, in the death of our Lord the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him: I took the newspaper Fsnnth by any Suchith them.
I'm skeet: the age of the man if he treats her flock sucker and do it even if refined; genius said: Nbit fortress and alive from Bani Asad they said: Hamana non Mkarob
Hlomanm lost them, and Gorham age Almaidy in grazing and Tazib
Says: O support and do not be fooled Azkm smallest man takes care of you sucker how he wants, the old fort Ghassani tillage may be blamed on you and Fort Ben Hudhayfah Tomnoa not sway. The allergen: enacted money if they sent him in the pasture. Son of a woman: the age of camels enacted if we are not sponsored by Vosmonha.
And year: the face Sqalth and Mlasth, said: is a free face, and said: his constituency.
It was: the image, it was: the front and Aljpennan, all of Alsqalp and liquefaction.
And the elderly: a cone like Aseel had been enacted by the flesh, and in Saheeh: the elderly man: a glossy, from Snnth Balmsen Omrrth if not on the elderly. The elderly man face: hasan easy; for اللحياني. And the year of the face: its departments.
And the year of the face: image; said a Ramma: Trek years against non-nasty smooth, not by the free and scar
The same applies to the night-blind: a decent merits of the sons of Sid Akramia Sunan
Fox and sang: white in the mirror, enacted by the House under placements Touch
In the hadeeth: It is urged on charity man got ugly year; Year: image, and you accept the face, and said: The Year of the cheek indefinitely.
And the elderly: the photographer. The Snnth If teeth are not his image. And the elderly: Almmless. It was narrated that Yazeed ibn Muawiyah said to his father: do not you think to Abd al-Rahman Bin Hassan Icbb your daughter? Sid said: What did he say? He said: "He said: She Zahra, such as the Pearl of the SPS gu, characterized the essence of innermost
Sid said: Believe; said over: It says: If the rate does not find in Sanaa, the Makarem, without
He said: Believe; said: "Where are saying: haunches and shaking to the dome behind, walking in the elderly Marmar
Sid said: a lie; Ibn al-Berri: these verses and tell my father Dhbl, which say it in his poetry in Ramlah muslim Sid; and the first point: the long night, and decided Kmahzon, and tired boarding Palmatron
Including: the left, if you entered from Alba b, and if you get out of my right hand
Vlmak estranged in Syria, even thought my suspicions Marjmat
Including: musk and make Alilnjoj and peer d prayer her canon
Including: the Dome of the vessels struck, when the end of winter in the Kiton
Agayton: chamber, a house in the house.
Then the best thing Varguetha Ka n assigned Labor and Conservative parties assigned
Wept, for fear of disunity, told the N, crying sad
Following the sad and remember Vasoli for reversal eBay, do not they refuse to Azloni
My doctors: propaganda, and is told: The depressive. And the year of God: its provisions and commands and prohibitions; for this اللحياني. And enactment of God's people: among them. Enactment of God any year between path correct. Allah said: Allah with those who have gone before; monument on the will of Allah any age act of God in the prophets and who Navqgua Orgevoa them to kill any are found, where they are. And year: the biography, was a good or ugly; "said Khalid bin threshold Hudhali: there Tdzan of the biography of you navel, the first years of satisfied driven
In the download Aziz: What is to prevent people believe that if the guidance came unto them and ask forgiveness of their Lord, but that should come to the first two years; said glass: the first two years having seen the suffering that he asked the polytheists said: "O Allah if this is the truth from Thee, rain down stones on us from heaven.
Snntha and are not Astnntha: navel, and enacted a year you follow him. In the modern: from the age of years old well has its reward and the reward of the work by, and the age of bad year for want of their work to a role model, and every person starts to be the work of its people after it was said: that is age; said the share: if I enacted a love, first lover of people , as I loved, including my own
Has been repeated in the modern state the year and the disposal of them, and originally the way the curriculum, and if launched at the Shara I just intended as ordered by the Prophet, peace be upon him, forbade him the assignment of the word and deed which has not been pronounced by the Holy Book, and this is said in evidence Shara : Book and Sunnah the Koran and the Hadith. In the modern: but forget to pay but no teeth to oblivion to cite people are guided to the straight path, and show them what they need to do If you view them forgotten, he said: It may be done if enacted a camel and its parishioners to do it. In the modern: it revealed Mahsb was enacted which did not make it years he worked, he said: do something for a special reason not prevail in others, may do to the meaning of Vesoul that meaning remains the reaction to the situation following the minors prayer to travel to fear, and then continued to the palace with no fear; and from the hadeeth of Ibn Abbas: Sand Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, and not over a year that had not been enacted done to all the nation, but for a special reason, that sees the idolaters strength of his companions, this is the view of Ibn Abbas, and others believed that the sand in the Cruising In an interview Mhelm'm Jthamp : Asnn today and tomorrow, any work that Psontk Snntha in retribution, and then if you wish to change Evger enacted a given change, said: change from taking a non-compensation.
In the modern: The greatest sin to fight people of your position and change Sntek; wanted to switch to return year after arriving in a Bedouin. In an interview with the Magi: their enacted years the people of the book which you take them in their own way and to accept the tribute Ojrohm Mjriham. In the modern: it does not break their covenant for the year does not invalidate any infertile endeavor messenger gossip and corruption, it is said not spoil what me and you wicked doctrines and practices in corruption. And year: way, and Sunan well. In the modern: the man shown us of the ways of them.
Rehabilitation: the way commendable straight year, and it was said: So and so of the people of the year; its meaning from the people of the way straight commendable, taken from the Sunnah the way he is. And said to the black line on a donkey: a year.
And year: nature; explained the view of some of them say TFB: Kareem merits of the sons of Sid Akramia Sunan.
Flashing on the Snnk any of your face and what you mean. And also by Sunan and the rules and the way his Sunan Sunan and his Sunan: his approach. Said: Sunan deceived the road and enacted. The year also: The Year of the face. اللحياني said: So and so left the road and you Sunan Sunan Sunan and any part; son of a woman: I do not know the other اللحياني enacted. Fennel: Year originally produced in path, which was enacted attitude became the first people who came after them. Age person of good roads began to be enacted if the mainland did not know him and his people Vastsnoa they have followed, which for years. It is said: the age of the road are not enacted, age at the source, and Sunan name meaning the elderly. And say: Step down on the road and Sunan Sunan and his Sunan, in three languages. Abu Obeid said: Sunan Sunan road Mahgth. And step down for any ways of the mountain on his face.
Essential: Sunan method. Said: So and so go straight on Sunan one. It is said: Flashing Snnk and Snnk any on your face. And Almsensn: The Road Traveled, and civility: the way of exhibits. Indentation and men in the enemy and enacted: the past in his face; Greer and say: we have been Bmstn the heat, as if the future of wind horse fasting
Meant Bmstnha position happened Mirage, said: intensification of heat into the enemy like a cloud area, and may be out of the wind; son of a woman: it is better but I have to say that the first applicants, and name it Sunan. Abu Zeid: enacted an animal on earth. And enacted the blood stab them if push came; said Abu Kabir Hudhali: Mstnp Sunan Filo spray, denies the soil Bakahz Marourv
The stabbing came as a stab of Sunan drives everything if it comes out blood Bhmute; and say TFB: The appeal against the vagina, on face to face meetings ء, spear holding our first Sunan said Shamar: he wants the first people who rush to fight, and Sunan intent. I'm Schimmel: Sunan man his purpose and ambition. And enacted a mirage: simmer. Enactment of camels are not: her leg market quickly, and said: Age Sir severe. And Sunan: who insists his enemy, and turnout in the beginning and end. The Sunan of horses any way to go. The wind came Snain if it was on one side and one way is no different. Said: came from horses and camels are the ways of the face. Said: "Your horse Asnn centuries Libdeh even shed any race Vidmr, was enacted a century and the centuries, as payment of a race; said Zuhair Ibn Abi Salma: Naudha cruiser Every day, enact, as Snabkha, centuries.
And Senynp: wind; bin Khalid Malik said in the Kenai Alsnain Wind: The Ahdtha Sneineh, and Alrjaa collect feedback, which is water in the sky Bourne. In anecdotes: Wind Nsnasp Snsanp and cool, and has Nnsenst Sincent if Hboba blew cold. He says: Nisnas of smoke and Snsan, wants to smoke, fire. The people built their homes on Sunan any one on one example. Age of clay: clay pottery or taken by him. And the elderly: the photographer. And the elderly: Almentn. Meaning: of black mud altered; Abu Amr said: any variable rotten;, "said Abu al-Haytham: the age of water is altered any change; his glass: the elderly molded over a year the road; said Alokhvc: they change if the set up without running water, he said:" shows you Health as saying that the name of the elderly neighbor to the effect of age and not something good, and some of them said: the elderly long, make it a long flat. Said: elderly man face any good face long; and Ibn Abbas said: It is wet, and said Almentn. Abu Ubaida: the elderly Cast. It is said: the elderly cast in the image, and said: Face elderly enacted into so-called because it Kalmkrot.
Fur: so-called elderly because elderly iron enacted by any scratches on it.
And said to him that flows when itching: for years, said: "would not be a liquid but stinking, said in a saying: of black mud altered; said Mahkok, and say: is the variable as if taken from enacted a stone on stone, which comes between them is said to him the years, Allahoalm what he wanted .


Last edited by Colin Wilson; 07-08-2010 at 02:06 PM.
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Old 07-11-2010, 06:01 PM   Post #9
Kadu
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Batayllero View Post
Latin broken by Celts and Basques.

What about Portuguese? Celts and Mozarabic minus the Basques?
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