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Jews of the Algero-Tunisia region. 
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Old 10-22-2010, 03:21 PM   Post #1
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Default Jews of the Algero-Tunisia region.

It's not exactly known how the first Jews settled in these areas , if it was directly from Palestine , or via South Europe , Anatolia and Egypt. Besides the very well known migrations of Iberian Jews before and after 1492. A tradition among the descendants of the first Jewish settlers were that their ancestors settled in that part of North Africa long before the destruction of the First Temple in the 6th century BCE. Though this is unfounded, the presence of Jews there at the appearance of Christianity is attested by the ruins of an ancient Jewish synagogue (dating back to the 3rd-5th century CE) found by the French captain in his Hammam-Lif residence in 1883.







Carthage/Djerba areas (Tunisia)
























Dany Cohen:



Michel Boujenah:



Ninet Tayeb:



Algiers/Constantine (French Algeria)











Lili Boniche:



Daniel Lévi



Enrico Macias:



Patrick Benguigui:



Ary Abittan

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Old 10-24-2010, 08:06 AM   Post #2
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Jews of Tunisia and Morocco (mix of old and modern pics) :



























Old pics (Constantine/Algiers - French Algeria)















































































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Old 10-24-2010, 08:32 AM   Post #3
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They look virtually identical to Levantine people. Mostly East Meds I would say.
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Old 10-24-2010, 10:34 AM   Post #4
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Some of them do have European features but I think in the whole they look as if they were locals without the kongoid input (as Behar's study showed) since being endogamous they would not mix with the local muslims who do have an important kongoid input I think.
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Old 10-30-2010, 03:35 PM   Post #5
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Few facts in French..that is a tradition in Djerban Island , which reunites all of them at a large pilgrimage in the island at the Ghriba , a legend says that a rock from Jerusalem's Temple was brought by refuguees after the Roman wars.
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Old 11-01-2010, 12:47 AM   Post #6
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Matthieu Boujenah
French actor of Tunisian origin



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Old 11-15-2010, 06:02 PM   Post #7
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French Algeria.

Fabrice Benichou




Raymond Leyris:


Charles Benguigui

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Old 11-15-2010, 06:03 PM   Post #8
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Old 11-17-2010, 12:52 PM   Post #9
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Par ailleurs, Alfred Louis Delattre démontre vers la fin du XIXe siècle que la nécropole de Gammarth, formée de 200 chambres creusées dans la roche, chacune abritant jusqu’à 17 complexes de tombes (kokhim), contient des symboles juifs et des inscriptions funéraires en hébreu, latin et grec. Une synagogue du IIIe ou IVe siècle est découverte à Naro (actuelle Hammam Lif) en 1883. La mosaïque couvrant le sol de la salle principale, qui comporte une inscription latine mentionnant sancta synagoga naronitana (« sainte synagogue de Naro ») et des motifs pratiqués dans toute l’Afrique romaine, atteste de l’aisance de ses membres et de la qualité de leurs échanges avec les autres populations. D’autres communautés juives sont attestées par des références épigraphiques ou littéraires à Utique, Chemtou, Hadrumète ou Thusuros (actuelle Tozeur)


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Comme les autres Juifs de l’empire, ceux de l’Afrique romaine sont romanisés de plus ou moins longue date, portent des noms latins ou latinisés, arborent la toge et parlent le latin, même s’ils conservent la connaissance du grec langue de la diaspora juive à l’époque. Selon saint Augustin, seules leurs mœurs, modelées par les préceptes religieux juifs (circoncision, cacherout, observance du chabbat, pudeur vestimentaire), les distinguent du reste de la population. Sur le plan intellectuel, ils s’adonnent à la traduction pour des clients chrétiens et à l’étude de la Loi, de nombreux rabbins étant originaires de Carthage. Sur le plan économique, ils exercent divers métiers dans l’agriculture, l’élevage du bétail et le commerce.
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Influences Européennes:

L’inclusion des Juifs dans la Déclaration française des droits de l’homme et du citoyen, le 27 septembre 1791, et les décrets napoléoniens de 1808 suscitent une certaine sympathie pour la France parmi les Juifs de Tunisie qui sont tous sujets du bey. Ainsi, le chargé d’affaires espagnol rapporte en 1809 que « les Juifs sont les plus acharnés partisans de Napoléon ». On rapporte même que certains Juifs, y compris des Granas, portaient à cette époque une cocarde tricolore, acte sévèrement réprimé par Hammouda Pacha, qui refuse toute tentative de la France de prendre sous sa protection ses sujets juifs originaires de la Toscane nouvellement conquise par Napoléon. C’est dans ce contexte que l’article 2 du traité du 10 juillet 1822, signé avec le Grand-duché de Toscane, fixe la durée du séjour des Granas en Tunisie à deux ans ; au-delà, ils passent sous la souveraineté du bey et sont considérés sur le même plan que les Twansa.

Dans le même temps, alors que la Tunisie s’ouvre progressivement aux influences mais subit aussi les pressions européennes, le souverain Ahmed I Bey inaugure une politique de réformes. En vertu d’un acte corrigeant le traité tuniso-toscan de 1822, signé le 2 novembre 1846, les Granas établis en Tunisie après le traité ou ceux qui viendront s’y installer obtiennent le droit de conserver leur qualité de Toscans sans limitation de temps, ce qui n’est pas le cas des Granas arrivés avant 1822. Cette disposition encourage nombre de Granas d’origine italienne à émigrer en Tunisie où ils constituent une minorité étrangère — 90 personnes en 1848 renforcés par quelques Juifs français et britanniques — placée sous la protection du consul de Toscane et installée dans le quartier franc de Tunis contrairement aux anciens Granas installés dans la Hara ; ceux arrivés après l’unification de l’Italie bénéficient à leur tour de l’application de cette disposition.
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Plusieurs vagues d'immigration ont en tout cas contribué à accroître la population juive d'Algérie. S'il est probable qu'il y avait des Juifs à Carthage et en Algérie avant la conquête romaine, le développement des communautés juives est lié à la présence romaine. Les révoltes juives des Ier et IIe siècles en terre d'Israël et en Cyrénaïqueont certainement causé l'arrivée d'immigrants juifs en provenance de ces contrées. L'importance de la communauté juive est attestée sous l'Empire romain par Augustin d'Hippone.

Quoi qu'il en soit, de nouveaux immigrants renforcent la communauté juive d'Algérie : de nombreux Juifs fuient l'Espagne lors des persécutions wisigothes des VIe et VIIe siècles, puis encore lors des persécutions liées à la Reconquista espagnole du XIVe au XVIe siècle. Beaucoup de Juifs de la péninsule ibérique s’installent alors en Algérie et se mèlent à la population juive locale. Au XVIIIe siècle, d'autres Juifs, les Granas de Livourne, peu nombreux mais jouant un rôle d'intermédiaires commerciaux entre l'Europe et l'Empire ottoman, renforcent les rangs de la communauté.

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Old 11-17-2010, 01:00 PM   Post #10
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Many honestly look no different to those from Turkey.

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Pg 25, first wave of Arab immigration came in the late 7th and early 8th centuries, resulted in Arabisation of North Africa and invasion of Iberian peninsula. Second wave involved invasion of Banu Hilal, Maq’il Bedouins from Northern Arabia in mid 11th century, displacing Berber language in North Africa. Jews from Syria, Iraq and Arabian Peninsula accompanied these Arabs.

Pg 26, Muslim migrations into Spain from North Africa continued at varying intensities through 12th and 13th centuries. Whereas Jews only did so between the 8th and 10th centuries. Between the 8th and 10th centuries, Iraqi Jews settled in Spain and North Africa and Spanish Jews enrolled in Jewish academies In Iraq.

Pg 35, against his Berber-Arab convert theory, Jews are said to have come to North Africa with the Phoenicians together from East Mediterranean, with documented settlements in Egypt and Eastern Libya between 330-23 BC, or Palestine after Roman conquest in 70 AD.

Pg 102, Sepharad phase one, berber, latin, Arabic as the three languages of the community up to the early settlement of Spain. Sepharad phase two, North African Jews in Spain shifted to monolingual use of Arab. Sepharad phase 3, 11th century
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Jews up to tenth century comprised of Muslim, Christian, Pagan and some Palestinian Jewish elements. Following 12th century, conversion to Judaism ceased. Jewish diaspora groups developed when Palestinian Jews emigrated in large numbers to Egypt and Asia Minor, and in small numbers in Southern Europe as early as 3rd century BC after Romans destroyed second temple in Jerusalem in 70 AD. Linguistically most of the Diaspora Jews switched to Greek linguistically. Pg 2
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